Kemoera Blunderbuss

A Kemoera Blunderbuss, converted to percussion, Banjarmasin or Sumatra - ca. 1850

Details of this item

Price

-

Status

Sold

Region

South East Asia (Burma, Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines)
(Banjarmasin/Acehnese - Dutch East Indies (Sumatra))

Period

19th century

Materials

Wood (mahogany),Steel, Silver, Iron, Brass.

Price

On Request

Status

Sold

Region

South East Asia (Burma, Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines)

(Banjarmasin/Acehnese - Dutch East Indies (Sumatra))

Period

19th century

Materials

Wood (mahogany),Steel, Silver, Iron, Brass.

Description

The blunderbuss has its origin in the 16th century, due to their short firing range and coarse reloading possibility they were mostly used in naval and cavalry warfare. The blunderbuss was mostly seen with bronze barrels to avoid corrosion caused by salt water ,while on land the barrels were rather made of steel. The colonial examples were mostly made of indigenous steel or sometimes imported steel from Europe.
Most of these blunderbusses were produced in Borneo, Banjarmasin and Negara, where they were traded with the Dayak people or exported to Sumatra. The decoration leads us to the Chinese Straits, who were multiple represented in the Banjarmasin area. They often decorated the barrels with ‘Banji’ swastika motifs and floral designs commonly seen on Chinese furniture. The same goes for the decoration carved in the butt-stock.

These ‘Kemoera‘ blunderbusses were in use during the Aceh war in 1873-1904 by guerrilla rebellions of the Acehnese sultanate and in Borneo during the Banjermasin war in 1859-1863. The Dayak often traded these guns in the region of Banjarmasin. The blunderbuss was used in guerrilla warfare against the Dutch expeditions which proved to be very affective in close quarter jungle fights. The blunderbuss was filled with bullets, but sometimes with shrapnel, beads or even shells. Proved very effective on close range, not always fatal, but one can imagine that being a European fusilier wounded by shrapnel in the heat and humid climate of the Sumatran jungle often resulted in fatality after all. The local Acehnese name for the blunderbusses is categorized in two types. The small blunderbuss is called ‘Kemoera Paneh’ and the larger ones like this example shown here is called ‘Kemoera Panjang’ according to a colored lithograph in Dr. J.Jacobs ‘Een familie en kampong leven op Groot-Atjeh Part II”. 

Aceh warriors, Sumatra 1890

Acehnese rebellions with blunderbusses – ca.1890

Acehnese warrior with blunderbuss 1904

Acehnese rebellions with blunderbusses ca.1904. – Dr. H.M. Need, Doctor in the Colonial Army.

J.C.J Smits describes the following in his book ‘Gedenkboek van het Koloniaal-Militair Invalidenhuis Bronbeek’: ”At the time the traveler Dr. Salomon Muller visited the former empire of Bandjermasin (1836), almost exclusively engaged in the manufacture of various types of weapons. “They make rifles,” he says, pistols, soldiers, and shotguns, damask sabers, swords, Native swords, and krises. In a word, all kinds of hand weapons. “Those weapons are part native, part European iron and steel. The firearms used by the Banjereese during the war of 1859-1863 consisted of lillas (big and small blunderbusses) and rifles of different models, mostly pan but also percussion rifles. Many weapons made of the Negara are exported, and this may explain the great resemblance to the firearms (Plate V) captured from the Battas in 1872 at Deli, on Sumatra’s east coast”.

This caption was written by General-Major Smits, the first commander of the Colonial Military Veteran boarding house Bronbeek, in 1881 and is therefor a good lead that these type of blunderbusses were made in the Banjarmasin and Negara area.

Warrior posing with a blunderbuss - Collection Tropenmuseum

An Acehnese warrior demonstrating the use of the Kemoera during an ambush. Collection Tropen Museum.

Plate V, Gedenkboek van het Koloniaal Militair Invalidentehuis Bronbeek litho door P. van Looy

Plate V as mentioned above, Various confiscated arms are shown, among them some blunderbusses. Plate V, Gedenkboek van het Koloniaal Militair Invalidentehuis Bronbeek litho door P. van Looy.

The barrel:
Smoothbore, made of indigenous steel with a nice forging pattern, which was derived from the Ottomans, with brass inlay in typical Chinese Straits style. The chiseled brass inlayed surface depicts a ‘Banji‘ swastika variation and floral design which is often seen on Qing furniture. The barrel-tang is attached to the stock with a screw and held in place with a wedge. The percussion mechanism is European import, British to be precise. Made in the last quarter of the 18th century by the firm ‘Tower’ in London for colonial export. The center of the plate depicts a crown with the letters ‘G’ and ‘R’ which stands for ‘George Rex’, better known as King George. It remains in excellent functioning condition. Like many other examples, this example was also converted from flintlock to percussion in a later stage. The barrel bares the Chinese ‘申’ mark which is likely ment for assembly of the gun parts.

The stock:
Made from mahogany with a carved and gilded prunus design on the butt-stock in typical Southern Chinese style. The handle has a crosshatched design which is copied from the European sporting and hunting rifles. The base of the stock has two brass thimbles to held the ramrod in place. The back of the butt is covered with a brass plate for protection. The trigger guard is made of bronze and provides excellent protection.

Conclusion:
Commonly taken as warloot from the Aceh expeditions. Brought back to the Netherlands by the KNIL army in the 19th century. A very complete piece, hardly seen on todays market. An excellent example of crossing cultures, namely: European, Ottoman, Chinese and Indonesian. All influences put in this very attractive example of a colonial blunderbuss.

Kemoera Blunderbuss

Condition

Very good, a beautiful patina and fine condition steel barrel. The percussion lock functions very powerful. The ramrod is in place and a small chunk was damaged on the near end of the stock. Further traces of use, but despite all that, a wonderful example.

Dimensions

Barrel length: 75cm
Barrel diameter: 50mm (at widest point)
Stock length: 103.5cm
Total length: 109cm

Weight

4551g.

Comparable items

Comparable examples:
– The Metropolitan Museum of Art New York acc.nr 36.25.2195
– Zeeuws Museum Middelburg (Netherlands) acc.nr 3600-Z-10013 

Provenance

Dutch private collection.

Literature

Gedenkboek van het Koloniaal-Militair Invalidenhuis Bronbeek, J.C Smits 1881
Een familie en kampong leven op Groot-Atjeh Part II, (Plate X),
Dr. J.Jacobs 1894